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Hatsushiba Hashimoto High School - International English Program
General Teaching Guidelines
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Introduction

 

Successful teaching is indeed an art and a science. The necessary components include great lesson plans, a spot-on curriculum, interesting and authentic teaching materials, adaptive and organized teaching methods, and an attractive and clean classroom.  Yet beyond all of these, the best teachers have a love of learning, dedication to their students, as well as enthusiasm and energy for their classes.

 

First, It will usually be effective to build some kind of pre-conversational context into the lesson by using or referring students to pictures, real life objects, actions, key words, common past or present experiences to the students (school, local, national events or television), or your own personal experiences, or from videos, music, or stories read aloud together.  

 

Whatever context is chosen should be recognizable and of interest to the students.  The target language could be a single question and a variety of expressions which answer it, a series of related questions and answers, a short conversation, a short discussion, a set of related vocabulary, or expressions which allow students to communicative specific functions.  The target language (TL) should be presented in as many modes (video, audio, visual, written text) as applicable.   As students become more advanced and / or familiar with specific TL, it is a good idea to see if they can practice using the language from memory.  After TL has been introduced, the teacher should allow students to practice in pairs while the teacher monitors, corrects, and supports their practice efforts.  It isn’t necessary for the teacher to correct every mistake, since fluency may suffer if too much attention is paid to the correctness of form.  Naturally, some activities may always require correction if the goal is mostly to produce correct form (grammar, vocabulary, or pronunciation).

 

It is also good goal to have students practice substituting vocabulary within the target language: question, answer, expression, conversation, situation or topic.  To do this is it is a good idea to have pictures, or lists of words which the students can see and readily use to replace parts of the target language while they practice.

 

For example, What are you studying? I am studying English, could be changed by the students into What are you eating? I am eating rice. OR Where are you studying?  I am studying in school.

 

Whatever lesson activities or ESL teaching / learning styles you choose to use, some of the most important aspects perhaps to develop in your classes are:

 

(1)       a friendly, supportive rapport with each student,

(2)         real, authentic communication,

(3)       active student involvement, and

(4)       opportunities for spontaneous / creative / fun learning.


Some other general teaching recommendations are that instructors should:

 

              (1)        guide students in developing confidence, motivation,

                           responsibility concerning their education;

              (2)         lead students in learning and using class content in

                           as enjoyable and professional atmosphere as

                            possible;

              (3)         communicate to students what the test content will

                            be like, as well as the manner in which they will be

                            tested and scored;

(4)        evaluate students only on material that has been

             covered, in the same ways they practiced the

             target content and skills;

              (5)        check for understanding of each learning point, by

                           first observing students practice and explain those

                           ideas and skills being learned, and then, offering

                           positive feedback and suggestions;

              (6)        encourage students to ask for further explanations or

                           examples, or just to announce whenever they still

                           don’t truly understand;

              (7)        give students sufficient opportunity to practice,

                           experiment with, and review the target language;

              (8)       give students further practice which helps them

                          discriminate when and how to use similar language

                          forms (past tense vs. present perfect, formal vs.

                          informal expressions, for example);

            (9)         regularly give homework assignments which reinforce

                          and review what the students were taught in class,

                          both recent and past;

(10)       plan and implement opportunities for students to take

              part in creative, evaluative, and practical applications

              of class content and skills;

(11)       lead students in gaining useful skills in

              communicating in a diversity of relevant media

              genres: stories, news, pictures, personal journals,

              conversations, role-plays, speeches, presentations,

              discussion, debates, essays, reports, periodicals,

              music, television, films, computers, and the Internet;

(12)        plan related transitions between class activities and

               between classes  (building on what they have just

               learned);

(13)        Link learning activities and content with other classes,

               school-wide events, vocations, and the local and

               world communities;

(14)        always be supportive to the lower level students who

               may be struggling.

 

 


Testing

Course Coordinators design and create the tests.  These tests should be given to the cooperating teachers about 3 days to 1 week before the actual test date. If they have not been, the cooperating teacher should check with the coordinating teacher, and if necessary, inform the head English teacher of the situation.

 

Grading

Only the Course Coordinators calculate the exam scores and grades for all students of a particular course. However, each cooperating teacher should determine the Class Participation score for each student.  It is worth 50 percent of their overall grade.  Complete your Class Participation Scores before marking your tests, so that course coordinators can go ahead and finish their grade sheets.  See Class Participation Guidelines for further information.

 

Absent Students

As soon as any students in your classes start missing several classes, speak to the homeroom teacher to find out the reason.  Whenever possible, prepare study support for work at home, and for when students return to class such as: unit outlines, target language, worksheets, homework assignments, textbook pages covered.  If students are absent for most of a term yet return for the tests, please give homeroom teachers the test guides to be given to these students as soon as possible.

 

Other Information

Especially teachers in first-year classes should be on the lookout for students to be moved from these original lists, either because it seems some students cannot work well in the same class or classes have an imbalance of academic abilities.

 

If a student is absent for 3 straight classes, check with the homeroom teacher to see what the cause is.  Be ready to prepare make-up work (mostly homework) and a lesson points summary for this student from your lesson plans.

 

If a student has been completely absent or has stopped attending recently, check to see if the student has withdrawn from the school.  Scores for most cases as this will mean leaving the score columns blank for that student, but check with the homeroom teacher to see what they would like in this case. 

 

Each teacher should give their old tests from the last year to the teacher who will teach those students for the following year.   Give to the coordinating teacher for that year to hand out. Teachers can them choose to review these tests to get an idea of what was studied and how well certain students are learning.

 

1st and 2nd year Seniors do not have classes after 3rd term exams.

 

3rd Year Seniors do not have classes after 2nd term exams.

 

After the first few classes, consider whether any students would be better off in a different class, due to individual student compatibility, motivation, or ability level.

 

Keep attendance recorded regularly in your grade books. At the end of the term, each teacher should give your coordinator your total of absences for each student.  The homeroom attendance books (生徒出席簿) should be updated everyday or by the end of the term.

 

Consider assigning summer make-up work for students whose attendance is very low, or whose tests scores are very low.  Give such work to the homeroom teacher.